DigitalOcean Spaces is an object storage service designed to make it easy and cost effective to store and serve large amounts of data.
In this guide, we will cover how to migrate data between Spaces regions, by using Rclone to transfer data between two Spaces buckets. We will demonstrate how to install Rclone, the configuration settings needed to access multiple regions, and the commands that you can use to synchronize your files between regions and verify their integrity.
Before we begin installing and configuring Rclone to copy our objects between buckets, we will need some information about our DigitalOcean Spaces account. We will need a Spaces API key, and we will need to know the regions and names of our source and destination buckets.
To create a DigitalOcean Spaces API key, follow the instructions in Manage Access to Spaces documentation.
Save the access key ID and the secret key. We will use them later to configure Rclone to access our account.
Next, we need to find the endpoint for each bucket. You can view the bucket’s endpoint within the DigitalOcean Control Panel by selecting the bucket and viewing the Settings tab:
The endpoint will always be the region you created the bucket in, followed by
.digitaloceanspaces.com. Make note of the endpoint for both of your buckets. Will we use this information when creating our
You’re now ready to install Rclone. You can do this on your local machine, or – if you are bandwidth limited – you may want to install Rclone on a Droplet located in the source or destination Spaces region.
Visit the Downloads section of the project’s website to find binaries of the utility compiled for different platforms. Download the zipped binary that matches your computer’s operating system to get started.
Once you have the Rclone zip file downloaded to your computer, follow the section below that matches your platform.
Before we can extract the archive, we will need to ensure that the
unzip utility is available.
If you are running Ubuntu or Debian, you can update the local package index and install
unzip by typing:
sudo apt update sudo apt install unzip
If you are running CentOS or Fedora, you can install
unzip by typing:
sudo yum install unzip
unzip installed, navigate to the directory where you downloaded the
rclone zip file:
Next, unzip the archive and move into the newly created directory:
unzip rclone* cd rclone-v*
From here, we can copy the binary to the
/usr/local/bin directory so that it is available system-wide:
sudo cp rclone /usr/local/bin
Next, we add the manual page to our system, so that we can easily get help on the command syntax and available options. Make sure that the local manual directory is available and then copy the
sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/share/man/man1 sudo cp rclone.1 /usr/local/share/man/man1
Then update the
man database to add the new manual page to the system:
Finally, we can create the Rclone configuration directory and open up a configuration file:
mkdir -p ~/.config/rclone nano ~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf
This will open your text editor with a new blank file. Skip ahead to the section on Configuring Rclone to continue.
If you are running macOS, begin by navigating in the terminal to the directory where you downloaded the
rclone zip file:
Next, unzip the file and move into the newly created directory:
unzip -a rclone* cd rclone-v*
Next, make sure the
/usr/local/bin directory is available and then copy the
rclone binary to it:
sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/bin sudo cp rclone /usr/local/bin
Finally, we can create the configuration directory and open up a configuration file:
mkdir -p ~/.config/rclone nano ~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf
This will open up your text editor with a new blank file. Skip ahead to the section on Configuring Rclone to continue.
If you are running Windows, begin by navigating to the Downloads directory in the Windows File Explorer. Select the
rclone zip file and right-click. In the context menu that appears, click Extract All…:
Follow the prompts to extract the files from the zip archive.
rclone.exe utility must be run from the command line. Open a new Command Prompt (the
cmd.exe program) window by clicking the Windows button in the lower-left corner, typing cmd, and selecting Command Prompt.
Inside, navigate to the
rclone path you extracted by typing:
List the directory contents to verify that you are in the correct location:
dir Output 10/23/2017 01:02 PM <DIR> . 10/23/2017 01:02 PM <DIR> .. 10/23/2017 01:02 PM 17 git-log.txt 10/23/2017 01:02 PM 296,086 rclone.1 10/23/2017 01:02 PM 16,840,192 rclone.exe 10/23/2017 01:02 PM 315,539 README.html 10/23/2017 01:02 PM 261,497 README.txt 5 File(s) 17,713,331 bytes 2 Dir(s) 183,296,266,240 bytes free
You will need to be in this directory whenever you want to use the
Note: On macOS and Linux, we run the tool by typing
rclone, but on Windows, the command is called
rclone.exe. Throughout the rest of this guide, we will be providing commands as
rclone, so be sure to substitute
rclone.exe each time when running on Windows.
Next, we can create the configuration directory and open up a configuration file to define our S3 and Spaces credentials:
mkdir "%HOMEPATH%\.config\rclone" notepad "%HOMEPATH%\.config\rclone\rclone.conf"
This will open up your text editor with a new blank file. Continue ahead to learn how to define your Spaces regions in the configuration file.
We will configure our two DigitalOcean Spaces regions as Rclone “remotes” in the Rclone configuration file. Paste the following section in
~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf to define the first region:
[spaces-sfo2] type = s3 env_auth = false access_key_id = your_spaces_access_key secret_access_key = your_spaces_secret_key endpoint = sfo2.digitaloceanspaces.com acl = private
Here, we define a new
rclone “remote” named
spaces-sfo2. Change the region name to match the Spaces region you are configuring.
We set the
s3 so that
rclone knows the appropriate way to interact with and manage the remote storage resource. We will define the Spaces access credentials in this configuration file, so we can set
Next, we set the
secret_access_key variables to our Spaces access key and secret key, respectively. Be sure to change the values to the credentials associated with your account.
We set the
endpoint to the bucket endpoint we looked up earlier.
Finally, we set the
private to protect our assets until we want to share them.
Next, make a duplicate of the configuration block you just created, then update the name and endpoint region inside
~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf to reflect your second region:
. . . [spaces-nyc3] type = s3 env_auth = false access_key_id = your_spaces_access_key secret_access_key = your_spaces_secret_key endpoint = nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com acl = private
The rest of the configuration should remain the same as for the first region. Save and close the file when you are finished.
On macOS and Linux, be sure to lock down the permissions of the configuration file since our credentials are inside:
chmod 600 ~/.config/rclone/rclone.conf
On Windows, permissions are denied to non-administrative users unless explicitly granted, so we shouldn’t need to adjust access manually.
Next, we’ll use
rclone to explore our buckets and sync data between them.
Now that our configuration is complete, we are ready to transfer our files.
Begin by checking the
rclone configured remotes:
rclone listremotes Output spaces-nyc3: spaces-sfo2:
Both of the regions we defined are displayed.
We can view the available buckets by asking
rclone to list the “directories” associated with the remotes (make sure to add the colon to the end of the remote name):
rclone lsd spaces-sfo2: Output -1 2019-09-23 13:07:54 -1 source-space
The above output indicates that one bucket, called
source-space was found in the
You can repeat the procedure to view the other region:
rclone lsd spaces-nyc3: Output -1 2019-09-23 13:08:28 -1 destination-space
To view the contents of a bucket, you can use the
tree command. Pass in the remote name, followed by a colon and the name of the “directory” you wish to list (the bucket name):
rclone tree spaces-sfo2:source-space Output / ├── Photos │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.10.27.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.11.39.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.18.00.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.18.18.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.18.30.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.19.32.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.23.06.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.23.53.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.25.14.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.26.22.png │ ├── 2019.01.25-12.43.35.png │ ├── 2019.03.13-14.35.34.png │ └── 2019.03.13-14.40.52.png └── Photos.zip 1 directories, 14 files
When you are ready, you can copy the files between buckets by typing:
rclone sync spaces-sfo2:source-space spaces-nyc3:destination-space
Assuming everything went well,
rclone will begin copying objects between the two buckets.
Note: If you hadn’t previously created the destination bucket in the specified region,
rclone will attempt to create one for you with the given name. This will fail if the name provided is already being used by another account or if the name doesn’t meet the naming requirements for DigitalOcean Spaces (lowercase letters, numbers, and dashes only).
When the transfer is complete, you can check that the objects have transferred by viewing them with the
rclone tree spaces-nyc3:destination-space Output / ├── Photos │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.10.27.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.11.39.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.18.00.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.18.18.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.18.30.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.19.32.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.23.06.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.23.53.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.25.14.png │ ├── 2019.01.24-23.26.22.png │ ├── 2019.01.25-12.43.35.png │ ├── 2019.03.13-14.35.34.png │ └── 2019.03.13-14.40.52.png └── Photos.zip 1 directories, 14 files
For more robust verification, use the
check subcommand to compare the objects in both regions:
rclone check spaces-sfo2:source-space spaces-nyc3:destination-space Output 2019/09/23 14:29:11 NOTICE: S3 bucket destination-space: 0 differences found 2019/09/23 14:29:11 NOTICE: S3 bucket destination-space: 14 matching files
This will compare the hash values of each object in both remotes. You may receive a message indicating that some hashes could not be compared. In that case, you can rerun the command with the
--size-only flag (which just compares based on file size) or the
--download flag (which downloads each object from both remotes to compare locally) to verify the transfer integrity.
In this guide, we’ve covered how to transfer objects between two DigitalOcean Spaces regions. We gathered API credentials and endpoint information from the Spaces service, installed and configured the
rclone utility on our local computer, and then copied all objects from a source bucket to a destination bucket.
rclone client can be used for many other object storage management tasks including uploading or downloading files, mounting buckets on the local filesystem, and creating or deleting additional buckets. Check out the
man page to learn more about the functionality the tool provides.